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      Zeolite Pet Litter

    Zeolite

    Zeolite1

    Zeolites comprise a group of hydrated aluminosilicate minerals with infinite three-dimensional frameworks of silicon-oxygen tetrahedra. Zeolite has a honeycomb porous structure of nano sized pores, and can accommodate a wide variety of cations, such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and others. These positive ions are rather loosely held and can readily be exchanged for others in contact solutions without major change of structure. The cations are usually exchangeable even at ambient temperature. Zeolites are further characterized by the ability to lose and gain water reversibly. There are about 48 naturally occurring zeolite minerals, of which clinoptilolite, is the most common commercially exploited.

    Natural zeolites were known initially to occur in basaltic rocks as veins and fillings of vugs and cavities collected for museums as rare crystals, but only in mid of 20th century were recognized as one of the most common groups of silicates in sedimentary rocks of volcanic origin, as a result of deposition of volcanic tuffs in saline, alkaline lake deposits and open hydrologic systems. Zeolites are formed by alteration of the volcanic glass comprised the tuffs by meteoric water. The zeolite mineral formed in each deposit depend on the composition of the source volcaniclastic materials, the fluids that react with them, and the temperature of formation; respectively the rate of zeolitization depends on time, temperature, glass composition, as well as the chemistry and rate of flow of pore water.

    The commercial potential of clinoptilolite is attributed to its unique surface and structural properties as stated below:
    - Cation exchange PROPERTIES
    - High degree of hydration
    - Low density and large void volume when dehydrated
    - Stability of the crystal structure of many zeolites when dehydrated
    - Uniform molecular sized channels in dehydrated crystals
    - Various physical properties like electrical conductivity
    - Adsorption of gases and vapor

    Clinoptilolite has a wide range of commercial uses including:

    Agriculture
    * Odor control
    * Livestock feed additives
    * Confined animal environmental control

    Horticulture
    * Nurseries, greenhouses
    * Floriculture
    * Vegetables/herbs
    * Foliage
    * Tree transplanting
    * Soil amendment
    * Reclamation, re-vegetation, and landscaping
    * Silviculture (forestry, tree plantations)
    * Medium for hydroponic growing

    Aquaculture
    * Ammonia filtration in fish hatcheries
    * Bio filter media

    Household Products
    * Pet odor control/ Pet litter
    * Household odor control

    Industrial Products
    * Gas separations
    * Absorbents for oil and spills

    Environmental Applications

    Radioactive Waste Treatment
    * Site remediation/decontamination

    Water Treatment
    * Water filtration
    * Heavy metal removal
    * Swimming pools

    Wastewater Treatment
    * Ammonia removal in municipal sludge/wastewater
    * Heavy metal absorption
    * Septic leach fields